Is there any functional difference between Occipital lobe ( in mammals) and Optic lobe (vertebrates other than mammals)?

Is there any functional difference between Occipital lobe ( in mammals) and Optic lobe (vertebrates other than mammals)?

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Visual processing centre in mammals and lower-vertebrates, are known to be different.

In mammals, such as human, it is the Occipital Lobe of 2 hemispheres of cerebral cortex; which is a part of forebrain. But in more lower groups of vertebrates, it is the Optic lobe, which is a part of midbrain.


Image: Placement of optic lobe, Source:, URL:">evolution vision ethology neuroanatomy psychology

Visual cortex

The visual cortex of the brain is the area of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information. It is located in the occipital lobe. Sensory input originating from the eyes travels through the lateral geniculate nucleus in the thalamus and then reaches the visual cortex. The area of the visual cortex that receives the sensory input from the lateral geniculate nucleus is the primary visual cortex, also known as visual area 1 (V1), Brodmann area 17, or the striate cortex. The extrastriate areas consist of visual areas 2, 3, 4, and 5 (also known as V2, V3, V4, and V5, or Brodmann area 18 and all Brodmann area 19). [1]

Both hemispheres of the brain include a visual cortex the visual cortex in the left hemisphere receives signals from the right visual field, and the visual cortex in the right hemisphere receives signals from the left visual field.


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What Does the Frontal Lobe Do?

The frontal lobe is the slowest part of the brain to mature, continuing to create and prune neural connections until a person's mid-twenties. This means that brain damage early in life renders the frontal lobe particularly vulnerable, potentially affecting behavior and cognition forever.

The frontal lobe is involved in a wide range of “higher” cognitive functions. Although all mammals have a frontal lobe, highly social mammals, such as dolphins and primates, tend to have more developed frontal lobes. This suggests that our social interactions may play a key role in the development of intelligence, and that the brain must devote significant resources to responding to the demands of social interactions. Humans have larger and more developed frontal lobes than any other animal.

Some of the many functions of the frontal lobe include:

  • Coordinating voluntary movements, such as walking and reaching for objects. The frontal lobe is home to the primary motor cortex.
  • Assessing future consequences of current actions. Thus the frontal lobe plays a vital role in impulse control, including decisions about when to spend money and eat, and whether a particular decision is morally or socially acceptable.
  • Assessing similarities and differences between two objects.
  • Formation and retention of long-term memories, particularly emotional memories derived from the limbic system.
  • Language: The frontal lobe plays a role in understanding language, linguistic memories, and speaking.
  • Emotional expression and regulation, in addition to understanding the emotions of others empathy may derive from the frontal lobe.
  • The development of personality. Because of the frontal lobe's roles in memory, emotional regulation, expression, impulse control, and other key functions, it plays a key role in personality. Damage to the frontal lobe can spur sudden and immediate alterations in personality.
  • Managing reward. Dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in reward and motivation, is heavily active in the frontal lobe because most of the brain's dopamine-sensitive neurons located here.
  • Attention regulation, including selective attention. Frontal lobe difficulties can lead to executive functioning issues, as well as disorders such as ADHD.

Circulation and the Central Nervous System

  • Describe the vessels that supply the CNS with blood
  • Name the components of the ventricular system and the regions of the brain in which each is located
  • Explain the production of cerebrospinal fluid and its flow through the ventricles
  • Explain how a disruption in circulation would result in a stroke

The CNS is crucial to the operation of the body, and any compromise in the brain and spinal cord can lead to severe difficulties. The CNS has a privileged blood supply, as suggested by the blood-brain barrier. The function of the tissue in the CNS is crucial to the survival of the organism, so the contents of the blood cannot simply pass into the central nervous tissue. To protect this region from the toxins and pathogens that may be traveling through the blood stream, there is strict control over what can move out of the general systems and into the brain and spinal cord. Because of this privilege, the CNS needs specialized structures for the maintenance of circulation. This begins with a unique arrangement of blood vessels carrying fresh blood into the CNS. Beyond the supply of blood, the CNS filters that blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is then circulated through the cavities of the brain and spinal cord called ventricles.

Blood Supply to the Brain

A lack of oxygen to the CNS can be devastating, and the cardiovascular system has specific regulatory reflexes to ensure that the blood supply is not interrupted. There are multiple routes for blood to get into the CNS, with specializations to protect that blood supply and to maximize the ability of the brain to get an uninterrupted perfusion.

Arterial Supply

The major artery carrying recently oxygenated blood away from the heart is the aorta. The very first branches off the aorta supply the heart with nutrients and oxygen. The next branches give rise to the common carotid arteries, which further branch into the internal carotid arteries. The external carotid arteries supply blood to the tissues on the surface of the cranium. The bases of the common carotids contain stretch receptors that immediately respond to the drop in blood pressure upon standing. The orthostatic reflex is a reaction to this change in body position, so that blood pressure is maintained against the increasing effect of gravity (orthostatic means &ldquostanding up&rdquo). Heart rate increases&mdasha reflex of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system&mdashand this raises blood pressure.

The internal carotid artery enters the cranium through the carotid canal in the temporal bone. A second set of vessels that supply the CNS are the vertebral arteries, which are protected as they pass through the neck region by the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae. The vertebral arteries enter the cranium through the foramen magnum of the occipital bone. Branches off the left and right vertebral arteries merge into the anterior spinal artery supplying the anterior aspect of the spinal cord, found along the anterior median fissure. The two vertebral arteries then merge into the basilar artery, which gives rise to branches to the brain stem and cerebellum. The left and right internal carotid arteries and branches of the basilar artery all become the circle of Willis, a confluence of arteries that can maintain perfusion of the brain even if narrowing or a blockage limits flow through one part (Figure 13.15).

Figure 13.15 Circle of Willis The blood supply to the brain enters through the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries, eventually giving rise to the circle of Willis.


Watch this animation to see how blood flows to the brain and passes through the circle of Willis before being distributed through the cerebrum. The circle of Willis is a specialized arrangement of arteries that ensure constant perfusion of the cerebrum even in the event of a blockage of one of the arteries in the circle. The animation shows the normal direction of flow through the circle of Willis to the middle cerebral artery. Where would the blood come from if there were a blockage just posterior to the middle cerebral artery on the left?

Venous Return

After passing through the CNS, blood returns to the circulation through a series of dural sinuses and veins (Figure 13.16). The superior sagittal sinus runs in the groove of the longitudinal fissure, where it absorbs CSF from the meninges. The superior sagittal sinus drains to the confluence of sinuses, along with the occipital sinuses and straight sinus, to then drain into the transverse sinuses. The transverse sinuses connect to the sigmoid sinuses, which then connect to the jugular veins. From there, the blood continues toward the heart to be pumped to the lungs for reoxygenation.

Figure 13.16 Dural Sinuses and Veins Blood drains from the brain through a series of sinuses that connect to the jugular veins.

Protective Coverings of the Brain and Spinal Cord

The outer surface of the CNS is covered by a series of membranes composed of connective tissue called the meninges, which protect the brain. The dura mater is a thick fibrous layer and a strong protective sheath over the entire brain and spinal cord. It is anchored to the inner surface of the cranium and vertebral cavity. The arachnoid mater is a membrane of thin fibrous tissue that forms a loose sac around the CNS. Beneath the arachnoid is a thin, filamentous mesh called the arachnoid trabeculae, which looks like a spider web, giving this layer its name. Directly adjacent to the surface of the CNS is the pia mater, a thin fibrous membrane that follows the convolutions of gyri and sulci in the cerebral cortex and fits into other grooves and indentations (Figure 13.17).

Figure 13.17 Meningeal Layers of Superior Sagittal Sinus The layers of the meninges in the longitudinal fissure of the superior sagittal sinus are shown, with the dura mater adjacent to the inner surface of the cranium, the pia mater adjacent to the surface of the brain, and the arachnoid and subarachnoid space between them. An arachnoid villus is shown emerging into the dural sinus to allow CSF to filter back into the blood for drainage.

Dura Mater

Like a thick cap covering the brain, the dura mater is a tough outer covering. The name comes from the Latin for &ldquotough mother&rdquo to represent its physically protective role. It encloses the entire CNS and the major blood vessels that enter the cranium and vertebral cavity. It is directly attached to the inner surface of the bones of the cranium and to the very end of the vertebral cavity.

There are infoldings of the dura that fit into large crevasses of the brain. Two infoldings go through the midline separations of the cerebrum and cerebellum one forms a shelf-like tent between the occipital lobes of the cerebrum and the cerebellum, and the other surrounds the pituitary gland. The dura also surrounds and supports the venous sinuses.

Arachnoid Mater

The middle layer of the meninges is the arachnoid, named for the spider-web&ndashlike trabeculae between it and the pia mater. The arachnoid defines a sac-like enclosure around the CNS. The trabeculae are found in the subarachnoid space, which is filled with circulating CSF. The arachnoid emerges into the dural sinuses as the arachnoid granulations, where the CSF is filtered back into the blood for drainage from the nervous system.

The subarachnoid space is filled with circulating CSF, which also provides a liquid cushion to the brain and spinal cord. Similar to clinical blood work, a sample of CSF can be withdrawn to find chemical evidence of neuropathology or metabolic traces of the biochemical functions of nervous tissue.

Pia Mater

The outer surface of the CNS is covered in the thin fibrous membrane of the pia mater. It is thought to have a continuous layer of cells providing a fluid-impermeable membrane. The name pia mater comes from the Latin for &ldquotender mother,&rdquo suggesting the thin membrane is a gentle covering for the brain. The pia extends into every convolution of the CNS, lining the inside of the sulci in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. At the end of the spinal cord, a thin filament extends from the inferior end of CNS at the upper lumbar region of the vertebral column to the sacral end of the vertebral column. Because the spinal cord does not extend through the lower lumbar region of the vertebral column, a needle can be inserted through the dura and arachnoid layers to withdraw CSF. This procedure is called a lumbar puncture and avoids the risk of damaging the central tissue of the spinal cord. Blood vessels that are nourishing the central nervous tissue are between the pia mater and the nervous tissue.



Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the three layers of fibrous membrane that surround the CNS. Meningitis can be caused by infection by bacteria or viruses. The particular pathogens are not special to meningitis it is just an inflammation of that specific set of tissues from what might be a broader infection. Bacterial meningitis can be caused by Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, or the tuberculosis pathogen, among many others. Viral meningitis is usually the result of common enteroviruses (such as those that cause intestinal disorders), but may be the result of the herpes virus or West Nile virus. Bacterial meningitis tends to be more severe.

The symptoms associated with meningitis can be fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, light sensitivity, soreness of the neck, or severe headache. More important are the neurological symptoms, such as changes in mental state (confusion, memory deficits, and other dementia-type symptoms). A serious risk of meningitis can be damage to peripheral structures because of the nerves that pass through the meninges. Hearing loss is a common result of meningitis.

The primary test for meningitis is a lumbar puncture. A needle inserted into the lumbar region of the spinal column through the dura mater and arachnoid membrane into the subarachnoid space can be used to withdraw the fluid for chemical testing. Fatality occurs in 5 to 40 percent of children and 20 to 50 percent of adults with bacterial meningitis. Treatment of bacterial meningitis is through antibiotics, but viral meningitis cannot be treated with antibiotics because viruses do not respond to that type of drug. Fortunately, the viral forms are milder.


Watch this video that describes the procedure known as the lumbar puncture, a medical procedure used to sample the CSF. Because of the anatomy of the CNS, it is a relative safe location to insert a needle. Why is the lumbar puncture performed in the lower lumbar area of the vertebral column?

The Ventricular System

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulates throughout and around the CNS. In other tissues, water and small molecules are filtered through capillaries as the major contributor to the interstitial fluid. In the brain, CSF is produced in special structures to perfuse through the nervous tissue of the CNS and is continuous with the interstitial fluid. Specifically, CSF circulates to remove metabolic wastes from the interstitial fluids of nervous tissues and return them to the blood stream. The ventricles are the open spaces within the brain where CSF circulates. In some of these spaces, CSF is produced by filtering of the blood that is performed by a specialized membrane known as a choroid plexus. The CSF circulates through all of the ventricles to eventually emerge into the subarachnoid space where it will be reabsorbed into the blood.

The Ventricles

There are four ventricles within the brain, all of which developed from the original hollow space within the neural tube, the central canal. The first two are named the lateral ventricles and are deep within the cerebrum. These ventricles are connected to the third ventricle by two openings called the interventricular foramina. The third ventricle is the space between the left and right sides of the diencephalon, which opens into the cerebral aqueduct that passes through the midbrain. The aqueduct opens into the fourth ventricle, which is the space between the cerebellum and the pons and upper medulla (Figure 13.18).

Figure 13.18 Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation The choroid plexus in the four ventricles produce CSF, which is circulated through the ventricular system and then enters the subarachnoid space through the median and lateral apertures. The CSF is then reabsorbed into the blood at the arachnoid granulations, where the arachnoid membrane emerges into the dural sinuses.

As the telencephalon enlarges and grows into the cranial cavity, it is limited by the space within the skull. The telencephalon is the most anterior region of what was the neural tube, but cannot grow past the limit of the frontal bone of the skull. Because the cerebrum fits into this space, it takes on a C-shaped formation, through the frontal, parietal, occipital, and finally temporal regions. The space within the telencephalon is stretched into this same C-shape. The two ventricles are in the left and right sides, and were at one time referred to as the first and second ventricles. The interventricular foramina connect the frontal region of the lateral ventricles with the third ventricle.

The third ventricle is the space bounded by the medial walls of the hypothalamus and thalamus. The two thalami touch in the center in most brains as the massa intermedia, which is surrounded by the third ventricle. The cerebral aqueduct opens just inferior to the epithalamus and passes through the midbrain. The tectum and tegmentum of the midbrain are the roof and floor of the cerebral aqueduct, respectively. The aqueduct opens up into the fourth ventricle. The floor of the fourth ventricle is the dorsal surface of the pons and upper medulla (that gray matter making a continuation of the tegmentum of the midbrain). The fourth ventricle then narrows into the central canal of the spinal cord.

The ventricular system opens up to the subarachnoid space from the fourth ventricle. The single median aperture and the pair of lateral apertures connect to the subarachnoid space so that CSF can flow through the ventricles and around the outside of the CNS. Cerebrospinal fluid is produced within the ventricles by a type of specialized membrane called a choroid plexus. Ependymal cells (one of the types of glial cells described in the introduction to the nervous system) surround blood capillaries and filter the blood to make CSF. The fluid is a clear solution with a limited amount of the constituents of blood. It is essentially water, small molecules, and electrolytes. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are dissolved into the CSF, as they are in blood, and can diffuse between the fluid and the nervous tissue.

Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation

The choroid plexuses are found in all four ventricles. Observed in dissection, they appear as soft, fuzzy structures that may still be pink, depending on how well the circulatory system is cleared in preparation of the tissue. The CSF is produced from components extracted from the blood, so its flow out of the ventricles is tied to the pulse of cardiovascular circulation.

From the lateral ventricles, the CSF flows into the third ventricle, where more CSF is produced, and then through the cerebral aqueduct into the fourth ventricle where even more CSF is produced. A very small amount of CSF is filtered at any one of the plexuses, for a total of about 500 milliliters daily, but it is continuously made and pulses through the ventricular system, keeping the fluid moving. From the fourth ventricle, CSF can continue down the central canal of the spinal cord, but this is essentially a cul-de-sac, so more of the fluid leaves the ventricular system and moves into the subarachnoid space through the median and lateral apertures.

Within the subarachnoid space, the CSF flows around all of the CNS, providing two important functions. As with elsewhere in its circulation, the CSF picks up metabolic wastes from the nervous tissue and moves it out of the CNS. It also acts as a liquid cushion for the brain and spinal cord. By surrounding the entire system in the subarachnoid space, it provides a thin buffer around the organs within the strong, protective dura mater. The arachnoid granulations are outpocketings of the arachnoid membrane into the dural sinuses so that CSF can be reabsorbed into the blood, along with the metabolic wastes. From the dural sinuses, blood drains out of the head and neck through the jugular veins, along with the rest of the circulation for blood, to be reoxygenated by the lungs and wastes to be filtered out by the kidneys (Table 13.2).


Watch this animation that shows the flow of CSF through the brain and spinal cord, and how it originates from the ventricles and then spreads into the space within the meninges, where the fluids then move into the venous sinuses to return to the cardiovascular circulation. What are the structures that produce CSF and where are they found? How are the structures indicated in this animation?

Components of CSF Circulation

Lateral ventriclesThird ventricleCerebral aqueductFourth ventricleCentral canalSubarachnoid space
Location in CNSCerebrumDiencephalonMidbrainBetween pons/upper medulla and cerebellumSpinal cordExternal to entire CNS
Blood vessel structureChoroid plexusChoroid plexusNoneChoroid plexusNoneArachnoid granulations


Central Nervous System

The supply of blood to the brain is crucial to its ability to perform many functions. Without a steady supply of oxygen, and to a lesser extent glucose, the nervous tissue in the brain cannot keep up its extensive electrical activity. These nutrients get into the brain through the blood, and if blood flow is interrupted, neurological function is compromised.

The common name for a disruption of blood supply to the brain is a stroke. It is caused by a blockage to an artery in the brain. The blockage is from some type of embolus: a blood clot, a fat embolus, or an air bubble. When the blood cannot travel through the artery, the surrounding tissue that is deprived starves and dies. Strokes will often result in the loss of very specific functions. A stroke in the lateral medulla, for example, can cause a loss in the ability to swallow. Sometimes, seemingly unrelated functions will be lost because they are dependent on structures in the same region. Along with the swallowing in the previous example, a stroke in that region could affect sensory functions from the face or extremities because important white matter pathways also pass through the lateral medulla. Loss of blood flow to specific regions of the cortex can lead to the loss of specific higher functions, from the ability to recognize faces to the ability to move a particular region of the body. Severe or limited memory loss can be the result of a temporal lobe stroke.

Related to strokes are transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), which can also be called &ldquomini-strokes.&rdquo These are events in which a physical blockage may be temporary, cutting off the blood supply and oxygen to a region, but not to the extent that it causes cell death in that region. While the neurons in that area are recovering from the event, neurological function may be lost. Function can return if the area is able to recover from the event.

Recovery from a stroke (or TIA) is strongly dependent on the speed of treatment. Often, the person who is present and notices something is wrong must then make a decision. The mnemonic FAST helps people remember what to look for when someone is dealing with sudden losses of neurological function. If someone complains of feeling &ldquofunny,&rdquo check these things quickly: Look at the person&rsquos face. Does he or she have problems moving Face muscles and making regular facial expressions? Ask the person to raise his or her Arms above the head. Can the person lift one arm but not the other? Has the person&rsquos Speech changed? Is he or she slurring words or having trouble saying things? If any of these things have happened, then it is Time to call for help.

Sometimes, treatment with blood-thinning drugs can alleviate the problem, and recovery is possible. If the tissue is damaged, the amazing thing about the nervous system is that it is adaptable. With physical, occupational, and speech therapy, victims of strokes can recover, or more accurately relearn, functions.

Difference Between Human and Sheep Brain

Human vs Sheep Brain

There are a few differences between the human and sheep brain. The human brain is larger in size and shape when compared to the sheep’s brain. Sheep brains do not have as many ridges and contours when compared to human brains, that have a considerable number of ridges and contours to give them an apparently much larger area than the sheep’s brain. However, there are several differences in human and sheep brains, but almost all mammals brains are similar.

The human brain of an adult weighs about 1,300 to 1,400 grams, and in length is almost 15 cm long. A sheep’s brain is elongated in shape, whereas a human brain is rounded. The human brain stem is towards the backbone and downwards, because in the human body the backbone is vertical compared to a sheep’s backbone which is horizontal, and its brain is directed outwards. The human brain is not only larger, but heavier than a sheep’s brain, because it is only 140 grams compared to the human brain, and is only about one third as long.

The convolutions and sulci comprises of a larger surface area than sheep apparently have, since they have less ridges and contours. Human behavior and motor control is typically controlled by the cerebellum, and a sheep’s brain has a much smaller cerebellum than the human brain, which, in comparison with humans and their complex learned behaviors, have less motor control and less learning abilities. The olfactory bulb, on the contrary, is comparatively larger in the sheep’s brain when compared to the human brain, because animals usually rely more upon their senses and abilities of smell than humans do. Humans rely more upon other senses, such as sight and hearing, rather than smell like sheep and other animals.

The pineal gland is responsible for controlling reproduction and circadian rhythms, and they happen to be larger in the sheep’s brain when compared to the human brain, that has less basic instinctual behavior controls. There is also a difference in the positioning of the human hind brain, which is different from the sheep because of the human’s erect position.

The human brain is not only an amazing organ, but it allows inventing, creating, and imagining, which is a major difference between human and animal brains, such as the large prefrontal cortex region. This is area behind the forehead that sets the human brain apart from the animal brain – which is not capable of all these inventive and creative processes. The skull protects the human brain, and the skull is about a quarter of an inch thick to protect the human brain from injuries. The human brain, when compared to the sheep’s brain, has a much larger frontal lobe.

1. The human brain is heavier and longer than a sheep’s brain.
2. The sheep’s brain has a more developed olfactory bulb when compared to the human brain.
3. The human brain is rounded, whereas the sheep’s brain is elongated in shape.
4. The human brain has a larger frontal lobe than the sheep’s brain.
5. The human brain and sheep brain have the major difference that humans can think, write, invent or create with their brains, whereas sheep cannot.

"Left Brain" and "Right Brain"

The two cerebral hemispheres are neither anatomically nor functionally identical. Cortical functions are said to be lateralized when one hemisphere is dominant over the other for a particular function. The side containing the speech centers is called the dominant hemisphere, and is usually the left hemisphere. Most people are highly lateralized for language skills, and lesions in the dominant cortex can cause complete loss of specific language functions. The posterior, superior part of the dominant temporal lobe is important for understanding spoken and written language. Lesions in the language centers produce various forms of aphasia, difficulty understanding or using written or spoken language. The language-dominant hemisphere is also a site of mathematical skills, and intellectual decision making and problem solving using rational, symbolic thought processes.

The nondominant hemisphere is more adept at recognition of complex, three-dimensional structures and patterns of both visual and tactile kinds. It is also the site for recognition of faces and other images, and for non-verbal, intuitive thought processes. Creative and artistic abilities reside in the nondominant hemisphere. Thus, the dominant hemisphere tends to be the more analytical one, and the nondominant hemisphere more intuitive.

Where is the Temporal Lobe Located?

Doctors sometimes refer to the temporal lobe as a pair of lobes, since the region crosses both left and right brain hemispheres, including one temporal lobe on each side. Like the brain's other three lobes, the temporal lobe is located in the forebrain. Biologists believe this is the newest portion of the brain to have evolved, since it is only present in vertebrates.

The temporal lobe is so named because of its proximity to the temples. It is positioned toward the base of the center of the cortex, just behind the temples. Like all other brain regions, it is not a standalone organ. Instead, the temporal lobe interacts with and depends upon input from all other brain regions, as well as sensory input about the surrounding world. In this way, the temporal lobe—and the brain it supports—is a dynamic organ.

Rather than controlling the mind, it learns from the environment, creating a complex mind-body-environment interplay that constantly changes a person's subjective experiences. Though every temporal lobe has a similar structure, the experiences produced in each person's temporal lobe are uniquely their own.


Once upon a time, researchers and scientist theorized that the brain stops developing within the first few years of life. The connections the brain makes during the ‘critical period’ are fixed for life. However, there is mounting evidence, from human and animal studies, that this view underestimates the brain. The brain has a remarkable ability to continually make new connections throughout our life, it has an extraordinary ability to compensate for injury and disease by ‘rewiring’ itself. Neuroplasticity, or brain plasticity, refers to this ability to form new connections, reorganize already established neural networks and compensate for injury and disease.

The brain is a complex organ that continues to change over time

Brain Plasticity:

There are many types of brain plasticity. Positive brain plasticity, which enhances healthy functioning of the brain. Negative brain plasticity, which promotes unhealthy functioning of the brain. Synaptic plasticity occurs between neurons, whereas non-synaptic plasticity occurs within the neuron. Developmental plasticity occurs during early life and is important for developing our ability to function. Injury induced plasticity is the brain’s way of adapting to trauma.

Positive Neuroplasticity

Positive brain plasticity involves changes to structures and functions of the brain, which results in beneficial outcomes. For example, improving the efficiency of neural networks responsible for higher cognitive functions such as attention, memory, mood.

There are many ways in which we can promote neuroplastic change. Positive brain plasticity is when the brain becomes more efficient and organized. For example, if we repeatedly practice our times tables, eventually, the connections between different parts of the brain become stronger. We make less errors and can recite them faster.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, meditation, and mindfulness can all promote brain plasticity. These practices improve neural function, strengthen connections between neurons.

Negative Brain Plasticity

Negative brain plasticity causes changes to the neural connections in the brain, which can be harmful to us. For example, negative thoughts can promote neural changes and connections associated with conditions such as depression, and anxiety. Also overuse of drugs and alcohol enhances negative plasticity by rewiring our reward system and memories.

Synaptic Plasticity

Synaptic plasticity is the basis for learning and memory. Furthermore, it also alters the number of receptors on each synapse (synapses are the connections between neurons that transmit chemical messages). When we learn new information and skills, these ‘connections’ get stronger. There are two types of synaptic plasticity, short-term and long-term. Both types can go in two different directions, enhancement/excitation, and depression. Enhancement strengthens the connection, whereas depression weakens it.

Short-term synaptic plasticity usually lasts tens of milliseconds. Short-term excitation is a result of an increased level of certain types of neurotransmitters available at the synapse. Whereas short-term depression is a result of a decreased level of neurotransmitters, long-term synaptic plasticity lasts for hours.

Long-term excitation strengthens synaptic connections, whereas long-term depression weakens these connections. As synaptic plasticity is responsible for our learning ability, information retention, forming and maintaining neural connections, when this process goes wrong, it can have negative consequences. For example, synaptic plasticity plays a key role in addiction. Drugs hi-jack the synaptic plasticity mechanisms by creating long-lasting memories of the drug experience.

Non-Synaptic Plasticity

This type of plasticity occurs away from the synapse. Non-synaptic plasticity makes changes to the way in which the structures in the axon and cell body carry out their functions. The mechanisms of this types of plasticity are not yet well understood.

Developmental Plasticity

In the first few years of life, our brains change rapidly. This is also known as developmental plasticity. Although it is most prominent during our formative years, it occurs throughout our lives. Developmental plasticity means our neural connections are constantly undergoing change in response to our childhood experiences and our environment. Our processing of sensory information informs the neural changes. Synaptogenesis, synaptic pruning, neural migration, and myelination are the main processes through which development plasticity occurs.


Rapid expansion in formation of synapses so that the brain can successfully process the high volume of incoming sensory stimuli. This process is controlled by our genetics.

Synaptic Pruning

Reduction of synaptic connections to enable the brain to function more efficiently. Essentially, connections that aren’t used or aren’t efficient are ‘pruned’ or ‘disconnected’.

Neural Migration

this process occurs whilst we are still in the womb. Between 8 and 29 weeks of gestation, neurons ‘migrate’ to different parts of the brain.


This process starts during fetal development and continues until adolescence. Myelination is when neurons are protected and insulated a myelin sheath. Myelination improves the transmission of messages down the neuron’s axon.

Injury-Induced Plasticity

Following injury, the brain has demonstrated the extraordinary ability to take over a given function that the damaged part of the brain was responsible for. This ability has been noted in many case studies of brain injury and brain abnormalities. Some stroke sufferers have displayed remarkable feats of recovering functions lost due to brain damage.


You may have heard at some point in your life that you cannot grow new brain cells. You may have been taught that from the moment you are born to when you die you can only lose brain cells. It is believed that this is due to hits to the head, consuming alcohol and narcotics, and from lack of cognitive stimulation. Well do not despair because your brain is not in danger, you can in fact “grow” new brain cells in a process called neurogenesis.

Scientists at Carnegie Mellon University‘s Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging (CCBI) have used a new combination of neural imaging methods to discover exactly how the human brain adapts to injury.

When one brain area loses functionality, a “back-up” team of secondary brain parts immediately activates, replacing not only the unavailable area but also its confederates (connected areas), the research shows.

The research found that as the brain function in the Wernicke area decreased following the application of rTMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation), a “back-up” team of secondary brain areas immediately became activated and coordinated, allowing the individual’s thought process to continue with no decrease in comprehension performance.

The Brain-Body Connection:

The human brain is a marvel of evolution, capable of creating breathtaking works of art and music, developing complex systems of culture, language, and society, and uncovering mysteries of the universe through science, technology, and mathematics. But even a healthy brain couldn’t do any of these things without a healthy body to support it.

Anyone who has had to perform on stage or give a speech in front of a large group of people knows that the stress and anxiety, supposedly mental phenomenon, can manifest in physical discomforts such as “Butterflies” in our stomachs, sweaty palms, and increased heart rate.

Similarly, when we find ourselves receiving praise or affection, the feelings of happiness and euphoria we experience are readily apparent when our cheeks blush, our eyes dilate, and in extreme cases, we can even begin to cry from joy.

By taking care of our bodies, we can help to ensure our brains are functioning at their best. Although there is no single exercise or diet that is right for everyone – each person should speak to their nutrition or health professional to understand the best regimen for themselves – there are specific general rules of thumb for exercise and diet that can help just about anyone improve their brain health.

Learn more about brain health:

V1 occipital lobe

Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine sulcus the full extent of V1 often continues onto the occipital pole. V1 is often also called striate cortex because it can be identified by a large stripe of myelin, the Stria of Gennari. Visually driven regions outside V1 are called extrastriate cortex Brodmann area 17: Known as V1, this region is located in the occipital lobe's calcarine sulcus, and serves as the brain's primary visual cortex. It aids the brain to determine location, spatial information, and color data The primary visual cortex (V1) is located in and around the calcarine fissure in the occipital lobe. Each hemisphere's V1 receives information directly from its ipsilateral lateral geniculate nucleus that receives signals from the contralateral visual hemifield The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1 (visual one)

Occipital lobe - Wikipedi

  1. The primary visual cortex (V1) is the first stop for visual information in the occipital lobe. The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe of the brain and is primarily responsible for interpreting and processing visual information received from the eyes
  2. The occipital lobe consists of different numbered regions - V1 up to and including V5 - that are shared between the primary and secondary visual cortices. The primary visual cortex (V1) receives input from the retina via the optic nerve and thalamus. The secondary visual cortex consists of regions V2 to V5
  3. The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes in the mammalian brain. The occipital lobe is mainly responsible for interpreting the visual world around the body, such as the shape, color, and..

V1 is located in the Calcarine sulcus in the medial occipital lobe of the brain (near the back of the head, just to the left and right of the middle). V1 is primary because the LGN sends most of its axons there, so V1 is the first visual processing area in the cortex 067 The Anatomy and Functions of the Occipital and Temporal Lobes - Duration: 4:34. Interactive Biology 65,009 view . This area is located in the occipital lobe at the back of the brain. It is also known as: - primary visual corte The occipital lobe is comprised of multiple visual areas that are based on findings from functional studies, and it is also divided histologically according to several differen Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine sulcus the full extent of V1 often continues onto the posterior pole of the occipital lobe. V1 is often also called striate cortex because it can be identified by a large stripe of myelin, the Stria of Gennari

Occipital Lobe: Function, Location, and Structur

  • Brodmann area 17 or Primary visual cortex (V1). Located in the rearmost region of the occipital lobe. In the event of an injury in this region, a person would be unable to see because they couldn't process any stimulus, even if their eyes and retinas were in perfect condition. Brodmann area 18 or Secondary visual cortex (V2)
  • T8) These signals then arrive at the Primary Visual Cortex, located in the occipital lobe in the brain, where they are combined and analyzed and sent to other locations within the occipital lobe, including Brodmann areas 18 and 19 where these visual stimuli are processed
  • Occipital Lobe: The occipital lobe is one of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain. The occipital lobe is positioned at the back portion of the brain and is associated with understanding visual stimuli and information. The primary visual cortex region is Brodmann area 17, usually termed V1 (visual one).V1 is placed [
  • The results left him with a lesion in his V1, which should have at least interfered with the process of converting retinal information into a coherent image. Apparently not. Despite the extensive bilateral occipital cortical damage, B.I. has extensive conscious visual abilities, is not blind, and can use vision to navigate his environment, the researchers report
  • Definition of occipital lobe in the dictionary. Meaning of occipital lobe. the full extent of V1 often continues onto the posterior pole of the occipital lobe. V1 is often also called striate cortex because it can be identified by a large stripe of myelin,.

The occipital lobe is located in the back portion of the brain behind the parietal and temporal lobes, and is primarily responsible for processing visual information. The occipital lobe contains the brain's visual processing system: it processes images from our eyes and links that information with images stored in memory theory of occipital lobe function vision begins in V1 that is heterogenous, and then travels to specialized cortical zones selective lesions up the hierarchy produce specific visual deficits (ex:V4-only greyscale vision, no imagination or recall of colo Chapter 11: The Occipital Lobes. - More is known about the occipital lobes than any other region of the cortex. - Even though vision is the exclusive function of the occipital lobes, other parts of the cortex have visual functions that are closely associated with occipital areas. - More cortex is devoted to visual function than any other activity.

The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1 . Primary Visual Cortex (Striate Cortex) The primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17 or, according to more recent nomenclature, V1), is located almost entirely on the medial surface of the occipital lobe just a small portion (perhaps 1 cm long) extends around the posterior pole onto.

Occipital Lobe Location And Function. The occipital lobes are found at the back of the brain, directly inferior to the parietal lobes and posterior to the temporal lobes. They are found within the brain's largest division, the forebrain. There is one occipital lobe in both hemispheres of the brain The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalianbrain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1 (visual one)

Occipital Lobe THE OCCIPITAL LOBE encompasses the posterior portion of the human cerebral cortex and is primarily responsible for vision. The surface area of the human occipital lobe is approximately 12% of the total surface area of the neocortex of the brain. Direct electrical stimulation of the occipital lobe produces visual sensations The primary visual cortex at the very back of the occipital lobe is labeled V1, and receives input from the optic tract. It has a clear map of visual information that corresponds to the areas of the retina. The center of vision is greatly magnified. The individual neurons of V1 are extremely sensitive to very particular changes in input from. • Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine sulcus • the full extent of V1 often continues onto the posterior pole of the occipital lobe. V1 is often also called striate cortex because it can be identified by a large stripe of myelin, the Stria of Gennari. 7

Visual cortex - Wikipedi

  • Primary Visual Cortex (V1) Striate cortex in occipital lobe 1st stage of visual processing Most visual input goes into V1 Striate Neurons (Neurons in V1) 1. Simple cells Only in V1 fixed excitatory & inhibitory zones Most have bar-shaped or edge-shaped receptive fields 2. Complex cells In V1 or V2 Orientations of light No fixed excitat-inhib zone
  • ation, object and face recognition, and memory formation. The primary visual cortex, also known as V1 or Brodmann area 17, surrounds the calcarine sulcus on the occipital lobe's medial aspect
  • g visual information
  • The visual cortex is the primary cortical region of the brain that receives, integrates, and processes visual information relayed from the retinas. It is in the occipital lobe of the primary cerebral cortex, which is in the most posterior region of the brain. The visual cortex divides into five different areas (V1 to V5) based on function and.
  • The primary visual cortex at the very back of the occipital lobe is labeled V1, and receives input from the optic tract. It has a clear map of visual information that corresponds to the areas of the retina. The center of vision is greatly magnified. The individual neurons of V1 are extremely sensitive to very particular changes in input from the eyes
  • . Methods for identifying functional areas in the dorsal and ventral aspect of the human occipital cortex, however, have not achieved this level of precision in fact, different laboratories have produced inconsistent reports concerning the visual areas in dorsal and ventral occipital lobe
  • The occipital lobe, located in the rear portion of the cerebral cortex, is primarily responsible for visual functions. It is the part of the brain where visual information is processed. After it is processed, visual information leaves the occipital lobe via two major pathways: the dorsal stream and the ventral stream. The ventral stream is a pathway that leads to the temporal lobe

primary visual cortex (in red). The primary visual cortex is found in the occipital lobe in both cerebral hemispheres. It surrounds and extends into a deep sulcus called the calcarine sulcus. The primary visual cortex makes up a small portion of the visible surface of the cortex in the occipital lobe, but because it stretches into the calcarine. Den occipital lobe och epilepsi Det antas att occipitalloben spelar en framträdande roll vid utseendet av epileptiska anfall, eller åtminstone delvis av dem. Det här är fall där exponering för frekventa blinkar av intensivt ljus orsakar utseendet på ett mönster av utsläpp av elektriska signaler genom neuroner av occipitalloben som sträcker sig genom hjärnan som orsakar attacken Check out this video lesson to learn about the four lobes of the human brain - the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal. You'll learn about the functions and processes of each region The primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17 ) is also known as the calcarine cortex, striate cortex, or V1.It is the main site of input of signals coming from the retina. It is located on the medial aspect of the occipital lobe, in the gyrus superior and inferior to the calcarine sulcus.Most of the cortex lies within the deep walls of the calcarine sulcus occipital lobe, specifically within area V1. The incongruity of a well-organized cortex and M.C.'s markedly impaired vision was resolved by measurement of functional responses within her damaged occipital lobe. Attenuated neural contrast-response functions were found to correlate with M.C.'s impaired psycho-physical performance

  1. Ainsi, le cortex visuel primaire (v1) est la partie du lobe occipital qui traite les données visuelles les plus brutes et est responsable de la détection des schémas généraux pouvant être trouvés dans les informations collectées par les yeux
  2. Le lobe occipital est le centre visuel. Il permet la reconnaissance des orientations et des contours des images en ce qui concerne les premiers traitements d'analyse visuelle effectuées en V1 (aire de Brodmann numéro 17) grâce aux informations provenant des yeux
  3. Congruous homonymous hemianopia due to occipital lobe infarction -Up to 8%-25% of patients who had a stroke can develop visual field loss. Stroke is the most common causative factor for HH and correspondingly, HH is the most common form of visual field loss following stroke Visual disturbance induced by bilateral LGB infarction is a rare occurrence [2]
  4. In both monkeys and humans, cortical regions comprising the object recognition pathway lie directly adjacent to the primary visual cortex (V1) in the occipital lobe, extending progressively into more anterior and ventral portions of the temporal lobe
  5. Retinotopic Mapping Up: The Visual Cortex Previous: The visual areas Two pathways. The visual cortex contains over 30 visual areas in the occipital lobe (the primary and some extrastriate visual cortex), and the temporal and parietal lobes (other higher extrastriate visual areas)
  6. Area VMV1 demonstrates functional connectivity to area FEF in the premotor region, areas PHA1 in the temporal lobe, areas VIP, LIPv, IPS1, and DVT in the parietal lobe, areas V1, V2, V3, and V4 in the medial occipital lobe, areas V3a, V3b, V7, V6, and V6a of the dorsal visual stream, areas FFC, VVC, V8, VMV2, and VMV3 of the ventral visual stream, and areas V3cd, V4t, LO1, LO3, PH, and FST of the lateral occipital lobe (Figure 21)

Visual Cortex - Vivid Visio

  1. The primary visual cortex (V1), also known as Brodmann's area 17, occupies the walls of the deep calcarine sulcus in the occipital lobe. The cortex receives, via the optic radiations, fibres from the temporal half of the ipsilateral retina and the nasal half of the contralateral retina
  2. the optic radiation and the primary visual cortex (V1) [18,20]. Forthisreason,themostcommonconcerninoccipital lobe surgery is aggravation of existing or creation of new visualfielddefects,sodespitethesuccessfulresultsachieved withepilepsysurgeryinbothadultsandchildren[11,21-24], reportsofsuchresectionsintheliteraturearerare( <5%of patients)[17,25-27]
  3. Also known as the striate cortex, or simply V1, the primary visual cortex is located in the most posterior portion of the brain's occipital lobe . In fact, a large part of the primary visual cortex cannot be seen from the outside of the brain, because this cortex lies on either side of the calcarine fissure
  4. 23 sentence examples: 1. Tissue, Cytoplasmic Protein, Human Adult Normal, Brain, Occipital Lobe. 2. Occipital lobe infarction is another important cause. 3. Chart 1. Cerebral contusion of right occipital lobe. 4. Tissue, Total Protein, Human Fetal N
  5. In mammals, it is located in the posterior pole of the occipitallobe and is the simplest, The tuning properties of V1 neurons (which neurons react to) vary significantly over time. Early (40 ms and beyond) individual V1 neurons have strong tuning to a small set of stimuli

Thus, the primary visual cortex (v1) is the part of the occipital lobe that processes the most raw visual data and is responsible for detecting the general patterns that can be found in the information collected by the eyes The parieto-occipital sulcus separates the occipital lobe from the parietal and temporal lobes anteriorly. The primary visual cortex (V1) is located within the occipital lobe and hence its cortical association area is responsible for vision The most common finding is occipital lobe infarction leading to an opposite visual field defect. Lenticulostriate Arteries Small, deep penetrating arteries known as the lenticulostriate arteries branch from the middle cerebral artery Occlusions of these vessels or penetrating branches of the Circle of Willis or vertebral or basilar arteries are referred to as lacunar strokes

It is located in and around the calcarine fissure in the occipital lobe. This visual area contains a sort of map where the visual field of the eyes is projected, i.e. everything in scope of our sight is directly processed in the V1 area of the occipital lobe Anatomy: Brodmann Areas of Occipital Lobe. Primary visual cortex (V1, Area 17) Receives sensory input from the lateral geniculate nucleus in the Thalamus. Lesions to this Primary visual cortex result in blindness of the contralateral Visual Field

Patient PF had a left occipital lobe infarct in V1 that extended significantly into V2v, the upper right quadrant of his visual field. This patient had not been involved in retraining on the motion coherence task or any other task Visual processes are the primary role of the occipital lobe, but each region of the lobe is known to have a 'map' of the world. These regions include the following: V1 Visual Cortex-The primary visual cortex that assists the brain in determining the location, navigation, and color around you 1 Structure 2 Function 3 Clinical significance 3.1 Epilepsy 4 Additional images 5 References The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1.

occipital lobe infarct in V1 that extended significantly into V2v, the upper right quadrant of his visual field. This patient had not been involved in retraining on the motio Definition. The occipital lobe, located at the back of the brain, is the smallest of the four lobes and enables visual processing and visual memory.Sitting behind both the temporal and parietal lobes, the occipital lobe is home to the primary and secondary visual cortices and is connected to the retinas of the eyes.Found in all vertebrates, this part of the brain is - evolutionarily speaking. The occipital lobe lies over the tentorium cerebelli while its medial surface faces the falx cerebri. There is no clear defined sulcus separating the occipital lobe from parietal and temporal lobes however, it is separated from the other lobes by a theoretical line starting from parieto-occipital fissure and extending to temporo-occipital.

Direct temporal-occipital feedback connections to striate cortex (V1) in the macaque monkey. Rockland KS(1), Van Hoesen GW. Author information: (1)Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242-1053 of V1 from higher order visual areas, or other factors. Regard-less of why some patients are blind despite V1 activity, it is lesion (outlined in white) and a winner map of visual cortex activity, masked by the medial occipital lobe, for representative patients of varying lesion volumes: (a

The occipital lobe is primarily responsible for interpreting visual stimuli and information that is received from the retinas of the eyes and deciphering it in the primary visual cortex, also referred to as Brodmann area 17 or V1 The optic radiations are predominantly supplied by the posterior and middle cerebral arteries1 and the AChA.6 Inferior fibres, known as Meyer's Loop,6 travel to the temporal lobe, while the superior and central nerve fibre bundles travel to the parietal lobes.1 The termination of optic radiations is located in the visual striate cortex (V1) in the occipital lobe superior and inferior to the. The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1 (visual one).Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine. to the temporal lobe, while the superior and central nerve fibre bundles travel to the pari-etal lobes.1 The termination of optic radia-tions is located in the visual striate cortex (V1) in the occipital lobe superior and inferior to the calcarine fissure.1 The occipital cortex is largely supplied by the PCAs, which ar 後頭葉(こうとうよう、occipital lobe)は大脳葉のひとつで大脳半球の最尾側にある。 哺乳類では視覚形成の中心であり、視覚野の解剖学的領域の大部分が後頭葉にある 。 一次視覚野はブロードマンの脳地図の第17野にあり、一般にV1と呼ばれる。 ヒトのV1は後頭葉内側、鳥距溝よりも内側にあり.

The clinical evidences of variable epileptic propagation in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) have been demonstrated by several studies. However the exact localization of the epileptic focus sometimes represents a problem because of the rapid propagation to frontal, parietal, or temporal regions. Each white matter pathway close to the supposed initial focus can lead the propagation towards a. The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) is a large white matter tract which originates in the occipital and parietal lobes and terminates in the inferior frontal lobe. 1-3 This white matter tract courses, along with the uncinate fasciculus, adjacent to the infero-lateral insula via the extreme and external capsules. 4 While its role is primarily associated with semantic language. In the macaque monkey, V4 spans the dorsal and ventral occipital lobe. Dorsal simultanagnosia results from bilateral lesions to the junction between the occipital lobes. It can also refer to the occipital operculum, part of the occipital lobe. The extrastriate visual areas include parts of the occipital lobe that surround V1. These extrastriate cortical areas are located anterior to the.

This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Occipital Lobe, Occipital Lobe Function, Cerebral Occipital Lobe, Primary visual cortex, V1 Visual Cortex, Brodmann Area 17, Secondary Visual Cortex, V2 Visual Cortex, Brodmann Area 18, Associative visual cortex, V3 V4 and V5 Visual Cortex, Brodmann Area 19 V1 tarafından zaten işlenen bilgilerin işlenmesinden sorumludurlar.. Görsel bilginin bu montaj hattında yer alan nöronların olduğu düşünülmektedir. herhangi bir zamanda görüntülenen izole elemanların özelliklerini işlemekten sorumludur yani vizyonun içeriği hakkında. Bu nedenle, bu rota ne rotası da denir. Dorsal yol . This area of the brain is divided into sub-section that all assist with vision. The Primary Visual Cortex (V1) is the major part of the lobe where most of the processing takes place The Occipital Lobe helps process visual information, movement, and color and shape perception. The Occipital Lobe contains the Primary Visual Cortex. Primary Visual Cortex: The Primary Visual Cortex is what receives visual information and translates it for the brain. The Primary Visual Cortex is also called V1 or Brodmman area 1

Occipital Lobe Function - Vision Whenever you think of the overall function of the occipital lobe, think of the word vision. The occipital lobe not only makes us consciously aware of visual stimuli, but it also helps us analyze, process, and recognize what the visual stimulus is Occipital Lobes The occipital lobes are the center of our visual perception system. They are not particularly vulnerable to injury because of their location at the back of the brain, although any significant trauma to the brain could produce subtle changes to our visual-perceptual system, such as visual field defects and scotomas Occipital Lobe Nacklob Svensk definition. Den bakre delen av storhjärnan som bearbetar synintryck. Den är belägen bakom hjäss-nackfåran (sulcus parietooccipitalis) och sträcker sig till nackinskärningen (incisura praeoccipitalis). Engelsk definition. Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory informatio The lobe is located at the back of the skull, thus the name (occipital comes from the Latin for back of the head). The occipital lobe's purpose is to receive visual stimuli from the eyes, process the information, and forward the information to the frontal lobe (which will formulate a response)

Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the most posterior portion of the cerebrum and it is involved in processing visual stimuli. It rests on the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater that separates it from the cerebellum. The occipital lobe is separated from the parietal and temporal lobes by the parieto-occipital sulcus and preoccipital notch, respectively Top left: Moving versus stationary dots stimuli. Bottom left: Moving dots again light up V1, but also evoke strong activity in area MT, a lateral area of the occipital lobe (just behind your ears) involved in visual motion perception . Rarely does one attribute motor disturbance to lesions in this region of the brain. While there is no doubt that normal vision is dependent on intactness of the calcarine cortex and the subcortical optic radiations, there is apparently little clinical evidence to indicate that the occipital area plays a role i

Abstract. Injury to the primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex) and the geniculostriate pathway in adults results in cortical blindness, abolishing conscious visual perception. Early studies by Larry Weiskrantz and colleagues demonstrated that some patients with an occipital-lobe injury exhibited a degree of unconscious vision and. According to Creel's report [12], VEP measures the functional integrity of the visual pathways from retina via the optic nerves to the visual cortex and could be obtained by the electrodes at occipital lobe The occipital lobe is the major visual processing centre in the brain. The primary visual cortex, also known as V1, receives visual information from the eyes. This information is relayed to several secondary visual processing areas, which interpret depth, distance, location and the identity of seen objects

Occipital Lobe - The Definitive Guide Biology Dictionar

Within the occipital lobes is the visual cortex, so these lobes perform much of the brain's visual processing. When the eyes view something, the occipital lobes receive the information and connect it to images already stored in memory, allowing humans to discern shapes and colors Damage to the optic radiations or primary visual cortex (V1) causes blindness in the contralesional visual hemifield of both eyes. Degeneration of ganglion cells in the retina has been detected following occipital lobe damage in post-mortem studies [1-3] and in in vivo studies [4-6] of monkeys, cats, and humans

Occipital lobe: Definition, function, and linked condition

Occipital Lobe. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38. Calcarine fissure and surrounding cortex (V1) Cuneus (Q) Lingual gyrus (LING) Lateral remainder of occipital lobe (O1, O2, O3) Parietal Lobe. 41 42 45 46 47 48 49 50 63 64. Postcentral gyrus (POST) Supramarginal gyrus (SMG) Angular gyrus (AG) Precuneus (PQ) Parietal, superior and inferior (P1, P2) Central Structures. 53 5 Study occipital lobe flashcards from Robyn Spilsbury's university of Victoria class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. Learn faster with spaced repetition Your occipital lobe is one of four lobes in the brain. It controls your ability to see things. An occipital stroke is a stroke that occurs in your occipital lobe occipital lobe translation in English-Tagalog dictionary. en Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine sulcus the full extent of V1 often continues onto the posterior pole of the occipital lobe. Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine sulcus the full extent of V1 ofte Previous MRI studies of gray matter atrophy in PD-VH have found a number of regions involved, including the temporal lobe and lateral occipital lobe. 44,45 Ventral stream temporal areas contain relatively high numbers of Lewy bodies, 46,47 with a gradient of increasing density toward the anterior temporal lobe, 37 and it has been speculated that these pathologic changes may contribute to visual hallucinations in DLB

Perception Lecture Notes: LGN and V

Occipital lobe and posterior occulomotor lesion patients can do this frontal lobe or anterior ocularmotor lesion patients cannot follow the verbal command with voluntary following. Right occipital lesions will not follow into the left half field. Forced choice (guessing). Background: Occipital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) cause a variety of visual disturbances and headaches. Early diagnosis may lead to treatment that reduces the risk of hemorrhages, visual field loss and other neurologic deficits, and death. Methods: We reviewed the records of the 70 patients with occipital AVMs referred to New York University Medical Center to investigate the mode of. ventricle in the temporal lobe ( Meyer's loop ). Those carrying i nformation about the inferior visual field travel under the cortex of the parietal lobe. Primary visual cortex The primary visual cortex (V1) has a representation of the contralateral visual hemifield

Occipital Lobe - V1 192 - YouTub

Den primära visuella cortex, Brodmann-område 17 eller V1, får information från näthinnan. Den tolkar och överför sedan information relaterad till utrymme, plats, forskare lär sig fortfarande ny information om occipital lobe och exakt hur den fungerar the lobe that makes up the rearmost area of the brain. The primary visual cortex is located here and thus the occipital lobe is considered the visual center of the brain. Learn more: 2-Minute Neuroscience: Lobes and Landmarks of the Brain Surface Know Your Brain: Primary visual corte Other articles where Occipital lobe is discussed: human eye: Superior colliculi: the rabbit, removal of the occipital lobes causes some impairment of vision, but the animal can perform such feats as avoiding obstacles when running and recognizing food by sight. In the monkey, the effects are more serious, but the animal can be trained to discriminate lights of different intensity an